Kendal Crawford, a 14-year-old eighth-grade student at Canyon Park
Junior High School in the Northshore district, won first place in the
Junior Division, Historical Paper Category, of the 2008 North Puget
Sound Regional History Day competition. Her essay, presented here, is on
the controversy over the Makah Tribe's right to hunt whales as
specified in their treaty and as opposed by some environmental groups.
Upholding a Compromise
by Kendal Crawford
Neah Bay, on Washington’s western coast, is a long ways from anywhere. A
winding road passes through trees that tower to the sky like
pine-cloaked giants, sun glancing off their branching arms. Across the
water is the sleeping form of mountains and ahead the Pacific stretches
forever. It seems like a step back in time. It’s a great surprise to see
a little town looking as if it just sprung from the ground at what
seems to be the very tip of the world. This is Neah Bay on the
reservation of the Makah Tribe.
In their own language, the Makah called themselves ‘Kwih-ditch-chuh-ahtx’, meaning ‘people who live by the rocks and seagulls’.
The Makah inhabited the Washington Olympic Peninsula, from the tip of
Cape Flattery, southward along the Pacific and east along the Strait of
Juan de Fuca for thousands of years before 1855.
The Makah were renowned for whaling. Spiritually, whaling was important.
Many rituals, songs, and dances were performed for the hunt. Designs,
baskets and legends were also created. Whaling was also important
socially; the whalers were given great honor and respect. Whaling was
important economically as well; four whales would feed a village for a
year and almost everything was used. However, starting in 1995 the Makah
tribal whaling controversy grew as a result of conflicting cultural
values between Native American and conservation ideals. Because no
compromise was reached, social and political tension remain unresolved
In 1787 or 1788, Euro-Americans came into contact with the Makah. The
destructive effect European diseases had on their population and
encroachment of white settlements pressured the Makah into entering
treaty negotiation with the United States government. Late winter of
1855, Isaac I. Stevens, the U.S superintendent of Indian Affairs and the
Makah headmen made the Treaty of Neah Bay. The compromise ceded 275,000
acres to the United States government, leaving the Makah a small
reservation located on the tip of the peninsula. The Makah agreed to the
treaty January 31, 1855 only after the following was included; “The
right of taking fish and of whaling or sealing at usual and accustomed
grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with
all citizens of the United States.” 
The migratory gray whale was the cetacean the Makah hunted most
commonly, however, shortly after the signing of the Treaty of Neah Bay,
commercial whalers discovered the gray’s birthing lagoons in Baja
California. They crowded them for easy and plentiful kills, causing the
whales near extinction. Only a few thousand remained from an estimated
In the 1920s, the Makah, having noticed the decline in gray whales, were
the first people to cease whaling of their own accord. With help from a
ban placed by the International Whaling Commission (IWC), created in
1946, the gray whales population made a remarkable recovery. By 1994 the
population had rebounded to an estimated 23,000 with a growth rate of
2.5 percent yearly.
However by 1995 the Makah had become an impoverished tribe. The income per household averaged 7,000 dollars yearly.
Drug, alcohol, and domestic violence plagued the tribe’s adults and
youth. Despite this, the Makah felt their culture was important to their
lives and kept it alive through a native language program, tribal
canoeing journeys, and the Makah Cultural and Research Center. In it are
artifacts from a 1966 archeological dig at Ozette, an abandoned Makah
village, which proved Makah presence and whaling for over 2,000 years.
The gray whale was removed from the endangered species list in 1994. In
May of 1995 the Makah contacted the United States government with an
interest in resuming whaling as guaranteed in their treaty. The tribe
addressed reasons for the importance of cultural revival through
whaling. “We’re ocean families, whaling families. So much of what we are
all about comes from the ocean, and we feel a deep spiritual need to do
this” Marcy Parker, a member of the tribe said. Though their
culture had faded, the Ozette Dig amplified interest in their historical
culture that they wish to keep alive. Traditional songs and stories are
still performed. “There are many civilizations that have came and gone.
The Incas, the Mayas, remnants of their civilizations are still around.
But our culture and our ways are still here.” The Makah
believed problems besetting their youth came from having none of the
pride and discipline that whaling brought to the tribe.
Additionally Makah wanted to whale for treaty rights. Whaling was a
right sanctioned to them in the Treaty of Neah Bay. In years after that,
the Makah had struggled to regain treaty rights. “To us, the Makah
Treaty is as powerful and meaningful of a document as the U.S.
Constitution is to other Americans; it is what our forefathers
bequeathed to us.”
In 1997, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) agreed to help the
Makah receive a quota from the International Whaling Commission (IWC).
An environmental assessment concluded that whaling would have no
significant impact. October, 1997, the IWC approved a
sustenance quota for the Makah, granting them 20 gray whales from
1998-2002, a maximum of five whales to be taken per year.
The first main obstacle to planning a modern traditional whale hunt was
that none of the Makah alive in this time period had whaled. Before the
Makah stopped whaling entirely in the 1920s, it was a grueling physical
and spiritual task that required tons of preparation. The Makah
relearned whaling by studying their historical ways and seeking advice
from whaling countries Iceland, Russia, Norway, and Japan. The Makah’s
gathering of whaling knowledge even took some of them to Russia. A
plan was then formed to meet IWC requirements. A major change was the
.50 caliber rifle on a support boat that would be fired into the base of
the skull, causing a more humane immediate death. However this addition
was later viewed as untraditional and barbaric by anti-whalers.
Makah whaling was supported by tribes around the country, such as the
Nu-cha-nuth, who approved of the Makah continuing a traditional
lifestyle. Those looking from an ecological standpoint
agreed the whale hunt would do no harm. “From a population biologist’s
point of view, I don’t think it [the Makah whale hunt] would have a
negative impact. The U.S. has always maintained that subsistence is a
legitimate use of whales and other marine mammals. Under treaty rights,
the National Marine Fisheries Service would have to honor that.” said
Steve Swartz, senior scientist for the National Marine Fisheries Service.
However more than 350 groups in 27 countries were against the hunt.
Some of the most strongly opposing included the Progressive Animal
Welfare Society (PAWS), In the Path of Giants, and Sea Shepherd
Conservation Society, though some prominent groups, like Greenpeace,
made a conscious decision not to oppose. The hunt was politically
challenged in federal court numerous times by various animal rights
groups and even Jack Metcalf, a U.S Representative who claimed the hunts
ecological effect had not been analyzed correctly. The animal rights movement throughout the 1900s had changed many American values. Whales were something to be saved.
Protesting animal rights activists worried that having the Makah hunt
primarily for cultural reasons could create culture, as opposed to
subsistence the only requirement to whale. They claimed it would
encourage other aboriginal tribes to take up whaling rights, and would
lead to a whaling outbreak worldwide. Protesters of the hunt declared
that killing whales, who often approached boats with a curious outlook
and friend’s eye, was cowardly and inhumane. Many tried to pose
alternatives for the hunt, like whale watching or mock whale hunts.
“This simulated whaling would satisfy cultural and social tribal
traditions, while also distinguishing the renewed Makah bond with the
whale as a unique environmental and ceremonial tradition,” stated the Seattle Times newspaper article, “Who Will Speak For the Whales?”.
The Makah never really considered any alternatives, the Makah would
settle for nothing less then resuming the culturally important whaling
as their ancestors had, and protestors would tolerate no harm to the
whales, no compromise could be reached between these two opposite
values. The social tension caused hundreds of people to flock to Neah
Bay to protest the hunt.
The Makah received cruel and threatening letters and phone calls. Some
activists condemned their culture as just an excuse to hunt, rousing
conflict as the Makah defended their position. The sleepy town of Neah
Bay was bombarded from all sides with pressure not to whale. “They are
completely misrepresenting what is a very meaningful tradition,
something that is centuries old. The question should be, what’s all the
fuss about? America is supposed to be about the acceptance of different
values,” said Janie Bowechop, Executive Director of the Makah Cultural
and Research Center.
Not all Makah in favor of the hunt however, causing some internal
conflict within the tribe. Most anti whaling Makah were elders, many of
whom had seen a whale hunt when they were children. Those who had
witnessed one in their lifetime feared the hunt might be dangerous. In
1995 an original request for whaling was revoked for a time after a
petition of seven elders signed against it. One was Dotti
Chamblin, the great granddaughter of the last Makah to whale, and
another was Alberta Thompson, who became the most vocal Makah to speak
against her tribe’s plans.
Despite opposition attacking the matter, the Makah whale hunt was given
the green light by officials, and on May 10, 1999 the first Makah whale
hunt in over 70 years cast off from the ancient whaling village Ozette.
As they chanted and paddled their cedar canoe, the Hummingbird,
protestors threw things at them along with angry words. Harpooner Theron
Parker missed a whale twice. The next day was also unsuccessful. The
Makah set out on their third day of the hunt May 17, 1999. This time,
there were no protest boats around. Out on the water was merely the
canoe, support boat, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the
The Makah paddled till they were off Cape Alva and approached a tranquil
gray. Parker struck, this time driving the harpoon into the whale’s
pearly gray flesh. The whale dove and vigorously pulled the canoe until a
shot from the support boat hit the whale’s head. For the first time in
70 years the Makah spilled whale blood into the Pacific.
A Makah fishing vessel then arrived to tow the whale back to Neah Bay.
They entered the harbor six hours later and the crew paddled the whale
to shore amidst cheering of hundreds and the beating of traditional
drums while rain poured. The gray whale was a three year old female, 30
tons in weight and 30 ½ feet long. The harpooner scattered eagle
feathers on the whale and ancestral songs were sung. Along with the
Makah, members from local tribes such as the Quillayute, Hoh, Tualip,
and Puyallup were there to celebrate the event. A potlatch feast was
held the weekend after to finish eating the whale.
Protestors felt great outrage at the Makah’s successful hunt. The
evening the Makah were celebrating and eating blubber, candlelight
vigils for the whale were held in Seattle. “They are acting
totally different from their ancestors who were sad and somber and
respectful after a hunt,” Captain Paul Watson of Sea Shepherd declared.
Makah elder Alberta Thompson said the hunt was untraditional, because
part of their whaling culture was to live a year spiritually clean and
three whalers didn’t even pass the drug test. “You should have seen all
of us anti-whaling people, we could hardly talk the day that they killed
the baby. The media won’t say baby, they just say whale.”
Tribal leaders state the hunt, despite controversy, had a positive
effect. “The interest of the people in our culture was sparked by the
whale. It brought a lot of talk about the culture and how the Makah were
in the past. That was our aim: to revitalize culture” said John
McCarty, first chairman of the tribes whaling commission.
More of their youth was learning their native language and students
from the high school helped move and arrange the whale bones so they
could be viewed at the Makah Cultural and Research Center. Keith
Johnson, President and spokesman of the Makah Whaling Commission said
“This is clearly going to cement our youth on solid ground for
identity.” Crew member Arnie Hunter explained “With the whales coming back into our lives it brought us in a full circle again.”,
and crew member Darrell Markishtum said “I’ve heard drums from houses I
have never heard them before ... It brought back songs and pride,”.
The hunt was re-approved June of 2000, and later in 2001. As time wore
on, some opposing groups conceded. After many times in and out of court,
whaling was ruled in the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals in the Anderson v. Evans case not to be allowed until the Makah received permission or exemption from the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). The matter is still disputed and undecided today.
Because of the differing values consequences have launched that carry on
today because no agreement was reached between the Makah and those with
progressive and environmental values. Some frustrated members of the
original crew participated in an illegal whale hunt in September 2007.
For some people it seemed evidence that Makah whaling rights should not
be restored. The Marine Mammal Protection Act’s prevention of the
whaling treaty rights protected by Act 6 of the Constitution created
political tension. The Makah continue to struggle through political
processes to get exemption from the act and resume their attempt at
cultural renewal. However cultural prejudice was also renewed on both
sides and suppression of the Makah’s attempt at continuation of
traditional ways. The Makah whale hunt controversy continues because
there is no agreed balance between tradition and conservation. It is
vital a compromise is reached, or the political and social tensions that
have already caused conflict between people of different values could
result in a new era of cultural intolerance.
Some may call the 1999 whale hunt a success, some a tragedy. It was a
day when whale blood stained the waves. A day when a people prayed for a
gift not received in 70 years and animal rights activists mourned the
girl gray whale who met a sudden end with harpoons and a .50 caliber
rifle. The whale and the culture of the Makah are still entwined in a
way that cannot quite be understood. The Makah whaling controversy
stemmed from a compromise over a hundred years old, and the resulting
conflict has yet to be resolved today. The past, present, and future of
the Makah and all who love whales will be shaped by the values that
surround this majestic giant of the deep.
 Eder, Jeanne Oyawin. Indian Nations: The Makah. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck VaughN, 2000.
 Treaty Between The United States of America and The Makah
Indian Tribe of Indians January 31, 1855. Ratified April 18th 1859.’
Facsimile Reproduction by Shorey Book Store, Seattle Washington, 1966.
 Shukovsky, Paul. “Makah Whale Hunt Plan Alarms Animal Activist.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer June 6, 1995: B.1.
Kirk, Ruth and Richard D. Daugherty. Hunters of the Whale an Adventure in Northwest Coast Archeology
. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1974.
 Markishtum, Darrell. Personal Interview. 20 January 2008.
 Makah Tribal Councial and Makah Whaling Commision. “The Makah Indian Tribe and Whaling: Questions and Answers.” Makah.com. January 2005. 10 Novemer, 1993. .
 US Department of Commerce Northwest Regional Office NOAA
Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service. “Chronology of Major Events
Related to Makah Tribal Whale Hunt.” Northwest Regional Office NOAA’s
National Marine Fisheries Service. June 11, 2007. November 12, 2007. .
 Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Protesters Shadow Tribes Pursuit of Whales and its History.” New York Times 2 October 1998: A12.
 Makah Whaling: Tribal Members Speak of Meaning, Controversy, and History. Dir. Anne Shackle. VHS. DISTRIBUTOR, 2000.
 Shukovsky, Paul. “Makah Whale Hunt Plan Alarms Animal Activist.” .
 Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling.” HistoryLink.org. March 16, 2007. October 20, 2007. .
 Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling.”.
 Brenda Peterson “Who Will Speak For the Whales – Elders Call For a Spiritual Dialogue on Makah Tribes Whaling Proposal” Seattle Times 22 December 1996.
 Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Protesters Shadow Tribes Pursuit of Whales and its History.”.
 Brenda Peterson “Who Will Speak For the Whales – Elders Call For a Spiritual Dialogue on Makah Tribes Whaling Proposal”.
 Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling."
 Sam Howe Verhovek, “After the Hunt, Bitter Protest and Salt Blubber.” New York Times 19 May 1999: A14.
 “A Makah Elder Speaks, Interview with Alberta Thompson” Earth First! Journal 1999.
 Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling.”.
 Makah Whaling: Tribal Members Speak of Meaning, Controversy, and History. Dir. Anne Shackle.
 Makah Whaling: Tribal Members Speak of Meaning, Controversy, and History. Dir. Anne Shackle.
 Markishtum, Darrell. Personal Interview. 20 January 2008.
 US Department of Commerce Northwest Regional Office NOAA
Fisheries National Marine Fisheries Service. “Chronology of Major Events
Related to Makah Tribal Whale Hunt”.
Note: What follows is Kendal Crawford's annoated bibliography of "Works Cited."
Gunther, Erna. Makah. Seattle. Special Collections Division University of Washington Libraries. Date Unknown.
This is a report written on pre-white to 1960s Makah history and
culture. I used this to get an idea on pre-white through 1960 Makah
lifestyle, as well as historical happenings and background on who the
Makah were as a tribe. This is a reliable source because the Washington
State University Press published it and this same author had other Makah
and whaling involved writing published.
Johnson, Wayne and Jennifer Aradnas. “A Letter from Neah Bay”. Earth First! Journal. 1999.
This is a letter from Wayne Johnson, captain of the 1999 Makah whale
hunt, to the public after the hunt published in numerous sources, in
this case Earth First! Journal. I used this to get his invaluable
perspective on the hunt and the controversy surrounding.
Kirk, Ruth and Richard D. Daugherty. Hunters of the Whale an Adventure in Northwest Coast Archeology. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1974
This is a book about the archeological dig at the village Ozette that
uncovered evidence of Makah presence and lifestyle there dating back
over 2000 years. It has information on the artifacts found and how the
Makah used to whale. I used this to acquit myself with the evidence that
the Makah had been in Neah Bay whaling for a long time, and also found
good descriptions of old whaling. This is a reliable source because the
author/s were on the excavation scene to record findings first hand and
it can be verified by other listings of artifacts found at the Ozette
“A Makah Elder Speaks, Interview with Alberta Thompson” Earth First! Journal 1999.
This is an interview between Earth First! Journal (an environmental
magazine) and Alberta Thompson, a Makah elder and the most vocal Makah
to speak out against whaling. I used this source to get further and more
in depth knowledge about the views on the hunt from anti-whaling Makah
perspective. This is a reliable source because it is an interview that
gives direct quotes showing Alberta Thompson’s true views on the hunt.
Makah Tribal Councial and Makah Whaling Commision. “The Makah Indian Tribe and Whaling: Questions and Answers.” Makah.com. January 2005. 10 Novemer, 1993. http://www.makah%20whalingqa.pdf/
This is a question and answer adobe reader document attached to the
Makah’s official website, written by the Makah Tribal Council and Tribal
Whaling Commission to answer questions the public has about Makah
whaling. I used it because I knew some of my questions would be
specifically answered here by the Makah involved. This was useful
because it added the Makah overall standpoint on whaling, and their
reasons for it to my research. This is a reliable source because it was
written by the Makah Tribal Council and Whaling Commission and featured
on the Makah tribe’s official website.
Makah Whaling: Tribal Members Speak of Meaning, Controversy, and History. Dir. Anne Shackle. VHS. DISTRIBUTOR, 2000.
This film is a collected group of responses from Makah’s about aspects
of Makah whaling, its meaning, controversy (as it was filmed after the
1999 hunt), and history. I used this to gather direct quotes and first
hand retellings and interpretations about my historical event, the 1999
whale hunt, from Makah who were involved. This is a reliable source
because it is a filming of actual Makah people who were involved with
the 1999 hunt talking about Makah whaling.
Markistum, Darrell. Personal Interview. January 5, 2008.
I interviewed Darrell Markistum, a member of the 1999 whaling crew. I
used his responses to get a real personal feel of the hunt from the
Makah point of view, especially because he was directly involved. I also
learned a lot about what whaling means to the Makah people and their
purpose in whaling. His quotes made a valuable addition to my paper,
though biased toward the Makah.
Peterson, Brenda. “Who Will Speak For the Whales – Elders Call For a Spiritual Dialogue on Makah Tribes Whaling Proposal” Seattle Times 22 December 1996.
This is a newspaper article from the Seattle Times during 1996
about gray whale history, behaviors, threats, and opinions from Makah
elders who opposed the hunt. I used this to get an understanding of
another side of the hunts controversy, anti-whaling Makahs. This is a
reliable source because it is from a reputable newspaper and has direct
quotes from Makah elders, but is also biased toward sympathizing the
whales and does not give any pro-whaling opinions.
Shukovsky, Paul. “Makah Whale Hunt Plan Alarms Animal Activist.” Seattle Post-Intelligencer June 6, 1995: B.1
This is a newspaper article from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer written
in 1995 when the Makah’s were just applying for a whale quota, declaring
their right to take whales as upheld by their treaty. It contains
opinions from animal rights activists regarding the proposed hunt as
well as the background information about the Makah’s lifestyle during
that day and their reason for attempting whaling again after a 70 years
absence. It is reliable because it comes from a reputable newspaper, it
shows multiple opinions so is not one sided, and its information is
consistent with that in other sources I have found. I used this source
to get information on how the Makah lived at that time and what they
felt whaling would bring back to their culture as well as animal rights
Sullivan, Robert. A Whale Hunt. New York: Scribner, 2000.
This was a book about the Makah 1999 whale hunt and events leading up to
and from it written by a reporter who spent two years with the Makah,
being in Neah Bay when the hunt took place. His social interaction with
members of the tribe and in-depth knowledge and discovery of almost
every aspect surrounding the hunt allowed me to use this to get all
around knowledge and description of my topic and what really happened.
This is a reliable source because Robert Sullivan was there with the
Makah, recording his own sights and the direct quotes of what was said
Treaty Between The United States of America and The Makah Indian Tribe of Indians January 31, 1855. Ratified April 18th 1859.’ Facsimile Reproduction by Shorey Book Store, Seattle Washington, 1966.
This is the treaty best known as the treaty of Neah Bay that was made in
1855 between the Makah Indians and the United States Government ceding
thousands of acres of native Makah land to the U.S government while
preserving the Makahs right to whale. I used this source to get first
hand evidence of the document and view the section that guaranteed the
Makah’s right to whale and take a direct quote from it as well as
observing what exactly the U.S government took away from them and
allowed them to have. This is a reliable source because it is a
reproduction of the actual treaty that was agreed upon between the
Makah’s and the United States.
Sam Howe Verhovek, “After the Hunt, Bitter Protest and Salt Blubber.” New York Times 19 May 1999: A14
This is a newspaper from the New York Times in 1999 discussing
the post hunt opinions and views about how the whale hunt was handled,
how the death of a gray whale affected the tribe and animal rights
activists. I used this to find how Makah’s who had never hunted tasted
whale considered the experience, how the event angered protesters who
had tried to prevent it, and other short-term outcomes the successful
whale hunt resulted in. This is a reliable source because it is from a
reputable newspaper and by the same author who did another accurate
article on the Makah’s.
Verhovek, Sam Howe. “Protesters Shadow Tribes Pursuit of Whales and its History.” New York Times 2 October 1998: A12
This is a newspaper article from the New York Times written in 1998
during and about the Makah’s preparations and plans for the approved
whale hunt. It also includes quotes and views from Makah’s on the
reservation regarding the hunt, both pro and against whaling. Finally it
has animal rights activists’ resistance. This is a reliable source
because it is a credible newspaper and gives multiple opinions. I used
its multiple opinions from the Makah’s on the hunt to get an idea on the
different perspectives various Makah’s have on whaling. This is a
reliable source because it is published by a reputable newspaper and its
content is consistent with others I have found.
Washington State Department of Ecology. “Tribal Reservations and Treaty
Ceded Areas” Map. Governors Office of Indian Affairs. 3 March, 2003.
November 10, 2007.
This is a map of Washington’s tribal reservations and ceded areas. I
used it to get the scope of how much land the Makah ceded to the U.S in
exchange for the preservation of their whaling rights as well as to find
the location of where their reservation is. This is a reliable source
because it is from a government site and other maps can verify it.
American Cetacean Society -- They’re Not Saved Yet! “American Cetecean
Society Fact Sheet: Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus.” 1999-2007. 25,
November 2007. http://www.acsonline.org/
This is a fact sheet on gray whales on a website by the American
Cetacean Association. I used this to get the behavior and more specific
physical description and diet of the whale that the Makah hunted. This
is a reliable source because it is by America’s Cetacean Society, an
acknowledged whale research and conservation organization.
Eder, Jeanne Oyawin. Indian Nations: The Makah. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck VaughN, 2000.
This is a book about the Makah tribe in a series about Indian Nations
that covers history, culture, lifestyle, legends, and modern day
society. I used this book to get an idea of their history and debriefing
on their whaling traditions. This is a reliable source because it is
published and its information is accurate and can be verified by other
Harrison, Sir Richard and Dr. M. M. Bryden. Whales Dolphins and Porpoises. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications, 1988.
This is a book covering a wide range of cetacean censored topics, their
taxonomy, anatomy, human interaction, and other topics. I used it for
specific information about the gray whale, the whale the Makah hunted. I
found out information on their physical description, diet, breeding and
migration. This is a reliable source because its information was
compiled, edited, and published.
Makah Cultural and Research Center. Neah Bay, Washington. January 20, 2007.
This museum had lots of primary sources relating to pre-treaty Makah. I
was able to get a firsthand look at ancient artifacts representing
whaling and how they related whaling’s importance to Makah culture. I
was also able to view the enormous skeleton of the whale killed in the
1999 hunt. This was a great opportunity for me to get in-depth with the
Makah’s culture and history.
“Makah Indian Nation flag.” Flag. University of Washington Libraries Digital Collection. 2007. December 12, 2007. http://content.lib.washington.edu/cmpweb/exhibits/makah/images/Makah-flag.jpg
This is an image of the Makah nations tribal flag. I used this to see
how the Makah’s tribal crest demonstrates their deep cultural tie with
the whale by displaying a visual representation of the Thunderbird
legend. This is a reliable source because it came from a university
Oldham, Kit. “Makah Whaling.” HistoryLink.org. March 16, 2007. October 20, 2007.
This is a Historylink essay that is a summary of Makah whaling related
events from the treaty of Neah Bay to the aftermath of the 1999 hunt,
mainly focusing on the events surrounding the 1999 whale hunt that was
result of the Makah’s struggle for their treaty rights to be upheld in
the face of great resistance by animal rights activists. This is a
reliable source because it cites a lot of sources itself, and its
information is consistent with others I have found. Also, the website
History Link is affiliated with History Ink, a historical researcher and
publisher organization. I used the essay to get an idea of my topics
US Department of Commerce Northwest Regional Office NOAA Fisheries
National Marine Fisheries Service. “Chronology of Major Events Related
to Makah Tribal Whale Hunt”. Northwest Regional Office NOAA’s National
Marine Fisheries Service. June 11, 2007. November 12, 2007.
This is an Adobe Reader file attached to the National Marine Fisheries
Services website. I used it to view a timeline of Makah whaling related
events, especially more governmental and whale protection events. It is a
reliable source because it was created by the National Marine Fisheries
Service, a trustworthy organization that had direct contact with the
Makah’s whaling issues in the 1990’s. It is also as government site and
the events listed on the document are verified with other sources.
Waterman, T.T. “The Whaling Equipment of the Makah Indians”. UW Publications in Anthropology.
EDITOR. Volume 1. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1920. This
is an article about the Makah whaling equipment from a multi-volumed
book featuring publications in anthropology. I used get a overlook of
the Makah whaling equipment, and a good description of whaling
traditions that the Makah considered every bit as important as their
equipment. This is a reliable source because the University published it
and its information can be reaffirmed.
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